by clicking the arrows at the side of the page, or by using the toolbar.
by clicking anywhere on the page.
by dragging the page around when zoomed in.
by clicking anywhere on the page when zoomed in.
web sites or send emails by clicking on hyperlinks.
Email this page to a friend
Search this issue
Index - jump to page or section
Archive - view past issues
Concrete In Australia : June 2014
Concrete in Australia Vol 40 No 2 55 highly durable reinforced concrete structures requiring no maintenance. 6.0 DESIGN CODES AND STANDARDS A large number of research projects along with a large number of monitored demonstration projects allowed the development of design codes. In 2000, the Canadian highway bridge code for the use of FRP rebar as internal reinforcement was adopted (CAN/CSA S807–1023). The Canadian highway bridge code for the use of FRP rebar as internal reinforcement was also adopted. In 2002, CAN/CSA-S806-0224 has been published by the Canadian Standards Association for design and construction of building components with FRP reinforcements. The American Concrete Institute (ACI) introduced the first and second guideline for the design and construction of concrete reinforced with FRP bars in 2001 and 2003. The North American codes and design guidelines have been updated and modified to encourage the construction industry to use FRP materials (ACI 440.1R-06, 2006). The BCA allows the use of these international codes specifically for FRP reinforcing under the alternative design solutions provision. While a few infrastructure projects in Australia have utilised FRP bars as the main reinforcement in concrete structures, a major issue for the growth of the technological level is undoubtedly the need for continuous efforts to develop and establish criteria and specifications relevant to the use of FRP bars. As a further study, research is needed for commercialisation and design specification for various research products. Based on these efforts, the FRP material may be applied effectively to more infrastructure to advance its use in many applications. 7.0 Conclusions The use of FRP bars as internal reinforcement in concrete structures where steel corrosion is a major concern has increasingly gained acceptance as a result of research and development efforts in the last 20 years. Still, many Australian engineers are not familiar with this technology. This paper presented recent developments and applications of FRP bars as internal reinforcement in concrete structures to increase the design knowledge of engineers working with FRP bars and grow the acceptance of this new technology within the wider engineering community. Extensive research programs conducted at the University of Sherbrooke have demonstrated that FRP bars are effective reinforcement to concrete beams, columns and slabs. These activities have resulted in the widespread application of FRP bars in Canada and other parts of the world. They demonstrated that the FRP bars can result in significant benefits related to both overall cost and durability if correctly applied in infrastructure. The results of the preliminary investigation at USQ point toward the suitability of GFRP bars as internal reinforcement in geopolymer concrete. The V-Rod sand-coated GFRP bars embedded in geopolymer concrete have comparable or even higher bonding capacity than the deformed steel bars. Also, the provision of anchor heads increased the pullout capacity of the GFRP bars by as much as 31%. These results indicated that suitable bond strength is developed and composite action is achieved between FRP bars and geopolymer concrete. This provided the necessary information to extend understanding into the behaviour of full scale structure made up of geopolymer concrete reinforced with FRP bars to increase its acceptance and utilisation in the mainstream construction applications. Hybridisation was found to be a viable way to increase the elastic modulus and to reduce the material cost of the FRP bars. The hybrid bars, consisting of the GFRP and steel wires, were found to improve the elastic modulus compared to GFRP bars without hybridisation. These hybrid bars may be applied effectively in concrete structures and the durability and practicability for the target structures should be considered in the future study. The successful field applications in Australia and internationally demonstrate the suitability of FRP bars as an alternative internal reinforcement to concrete in structures such as light rail, power stations, marine structures, sewer plants, and military facilities. More experimental evidence and performance testing will provide a better understanding of the behaviour of concrete structures reinforced with FRP bars. This will lead to further improvement of the product, effective and increased utilisation and acceptance of this new material, and new market opportunities for fibre composite reinforcements. Figure 13: FRP reinforced revetment wall, (left) and precast concrete wave breaker (right). 46-56 - Manalo.indd 55 46-56 - Manalo.indd 55 22/05/14 11:57 AM 22/05/14 11:57 AM