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Concrete In Australia : September 2013
Concrete in Australia Vol 39 No 3 43 higher VPV, but the permeable voids were filled by the excess sodium silicate gel, such that they did not allow transport of chloride ions, yielding a low chloride diffusion coefficient. Use of a suitable super-plasticiser would have reduced the amount of water in the concrete mix and resulted in a lower value of VPV e implication of this finding is that correct amounts of sodium silicate activator should be used in the formulation such that free alkali is not available to cause AAR in the presence of reactive aggregate. Also, compatible super-plasticisers should be used for better workability and to reduce the amount of water in the mix, which would result in acceptable values of VPV. REFERENCES Andrews-Phaedonos, F. 2011. Geopolymer "green" concrete: reducing the carbon footprint. e VicRoads experience. 8th Austroads Bridge Conference, Sydney, NSW, Australia, October 2011. Andrews-Phaedonos, A. (2012), "Reducing the carbon footprint -- e VicRoads experience", Concrete in Australia, Vol.38, No.1, pp.40-48. Bakharev, T, Sanjayan, JG & Cheng, Y-B 2001b, Resistance of alkali-activated slag concrete to alkali-aggregate reaction , Cement & Concrete Research, vol.31, no.2, pp.331-4. Figure 11. SEM/EDX of phases seen in the concrete of upstream walls. Counts1000 800 O 600 C 400 200 0 Al Si Mg NaS Ca Ca ClK Fe 2 4 6 8 10 Ener gy(keV) Counts1000 Ca Si 800 Al 600 O 400 C 200 Mg Cl Ca Na SK Fe 0 2 4 6 8 10 Energy(keV) Counts1000 Al 800 O Si Ca 600 400 C 200 Mg Cl NaS Ca K Fe 0 2 4 6 8 10 Energy(keV)