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Concrete In Australia : March 2013
54 Concrete in Australia Vol 39 No 1 TECHNICAL PAPER simultaneous encapsulation of hazardous wastes, developed by the author, should provide long term maintenance-free serviceability of major roads and highways, and at the same time safe and economical method of the disposal of hazardous wastes. e theory and practical application of concrete capable of safe encapsulation of the variety of wastes, including low-level and intermediate-level radioactive wastes developed by Samarin received recognition by the American and Canadian Concrete Institutes (Canmet and ACI) in 1997. e economical method of hazardous waste encapsulation can be achieved by mixing approximately 20 kg of waste into 1 m3 of highly durable concrete, and placing this concrete into the base, in the raft foundation of highway pavement. Although the costs of such highway pavements can vary depending on the location and on traffic intensity, the combined cost of the proposed construction and waste disposal should be comparable, or even less by comparison with the sum total of the conventional pavement constriction and current methods of waste disposal, when these are implemented separately. e proposed method should be considered for all the future implementations by state Road and Traffic Authorities in the major reconstructions of old, and in the constructions of new highways. REFERENCES Boldyrev, V. V., Delmon, B. and Boulens, M. 1979. e Control of Reactivity in Solids, Elsevier Scientific Publication Co. Glansdorff P. and Prigogine I. 1971. ermodynamic eory of Structure, Stability and Fluctuations, Wiley-Interscience, New York, Glasser F. P. 1996. Cements in Radioactive Waste Treatment and Disposal, Proceedings of the International Conference : Concrete in the Service of Mankind, Volume: Concrete for Infrastructure and Utilities , pp. 453-457, University of Dundee. Scotland, E & FN Spon, London. Glukhovsky V. D. and Petrenko I. Y. 1992. Complex ermographical Analysis of Kinetics of the Process of Alkaline Aluminate-Silicate Formation (in Russian), Chapter II, Collection of Works by Glukhovsky, Published by Budivelnik, Kiev. Glukhovsky V. D., Bozhenov P. I. and Runova R. F. 1992. e Effect of Rearrangement -- the Binders and Materials of Contact Hardening (in Russian), Chapter XVII Collection of Works by Glukhovsky, Published by Budivelnik, Kiev. Durie R. A., and Samarin A. 2001. Hydraulic Cements of the Future -- their Potential Effect on the Abatement of Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Proceeding of the Fifth International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Techniques (GHGT-5), pp. 1248-1252, Cairns, Q-ld, CSIRO Publication. Mchedlov-Petrossyan O. P. 1963. e Formation of Cement Stone as a eoretical Basis of Modern Concrete Technology, Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Silicate Industry, Budapest, pp.315-321, B. Beke & F. Tomas. Mchedlov-Petrossyan, O. P. Editor in Chief, 1984. ermodynamics of Silicates, Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Rhebinder P. A. 1979. Selected Works on the Surface Phenomena in Dispersing Systems (in Russian), Academy of Sciences USSR, Published by Nauka,, Moscow. Prigogine, Ilya, 1947. Etude ermodynamique des Phénoménes Irréversibles, Dosoer, Liége. Prigogine, Ilya and Nicolis G., Self-Organisation in Non- Equilibrium Systems, Wiley, 1977. Prigogine Ilya and Stengers Isabelle, 1980. Order out of Chaos, Man's New Dialogue with Nature, Flamingo. Samarin A. 1979. Chemical Weathering of Concrete in Sub- Tropical and Tropical Regions, Proceeding of RILEM Conference on Quality Control of Concrete Structures, Stockholm, Sweden, June. Samarin A. 1987a. Assurance of Durability in Building and Structural Engineering Practice, Transactions of the Institution of Engineers Australia, Vol CE29, No.1, February. Samarin A. 1987b. Methodology of Modelling for Concrete Durability, Katharine and Bryant Mather International Conference, Edited by L. M. Scanlon, ACI SP-100, Vol 2, pp. 1205-1225, April-May. Samarin A. 1989a. New Cements and Concretes, Invited paper, Proceedings of the Symposium held at the Annual General Meeting of the Australian Academy of Science on the Application of New Materials, pp. 16-23, Canberra, April. Samarin A. 1989b. e Role of Surface-acting Admixtures in the Optimization of Technology of High Strength Concretes (in Russian), Invited Paper, XIV Mendeleev Congress of eoretical and Applied Chemistry, Volume: New Construction and Functional Materials, Published by Nauka, Moscow. Samarin A. 1992. Durability of Concrete, Chapter 11, Australian Concrete Technology, Edited by W. G. Ryan and A. Samarin, Longman Cheshire, Melbourne. Samarin A. 1992. Progressi Nella Technologia del Calcestruzzo: Opportunita per i Prossimi Dieci Anni, L Industria Italiana del Cemento, No. 667, pp. 413-418. Samarin A. 1993. Encapsulation of Solid Wastes from Industrial By-products, Invited Key-note address, Proceedings of the International Conference on Environmental Management, Geo-Water and Engineering Aspects, Wollongong, Figure 2. Cross section of Via Munita.