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Concrete In Australia : March 2013
20 Concrete in Australia Vol 39 No 1 FEATURE: ANCHORING & PRECAST Specifications and design of anchors in Australia -- Needs and developments Emad Gad -- Professor and Civil Engineering Discipline Leader Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria ere has been significant growth in use of anchors in the construction industry in Australia and worldwide in recent times. is is due to the increase in use of precast concrete elements, flexibility offered by post-installed anchors, and the development of a broad range of innovative fastening solutions for many applications. In concrete, anchors can be grouped according to their installation method into cast-in-place and post-installed. Examples of the cast-in-place anchors are ferrules and channels. Post-installed anchors can be further classified into two groups being direct installation (power actuated) fasteners and a much larger ensemble being the drill installation fasteners, which covers chemical bonded anchors and mechanical anchors (such as expansion and screw anchors). In Australia, there are hundreds of anchor products available with many entering the market every year. With the growth in use of anchors in Australia, suppliers and users of anchors have identified a number of issues which require attention in order to continue to deliver appropriate fastening solutions in the construction industry with the necessary degree of confidence. ese issues are: • ere are no standards for testing or evaluation of anchors Figure 1a. A typical failure mode of a bonded anchor in mature concrete.