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Concrete In Australia : December 2010
Concrete in Australia Vol 36 No 4 41 of the AET blocks can be primarily due to the addition of the silicone based chemical admixture Earthcure, which retards moisture progression, and the high percentage of cement amount 19. 6.0 CONCLUDING REMARKS Rammed earth was identified as a construction material with significant advantages over the typical steel framed houses that are currently built on the peninsula. e benefits of rammed earth in remote areas were investigated and the mechanical behaviour of soil samples collected insitu from a specific gravel pit was studied. e results obtained encourage the use of rammed earth. Laboratory testing of rammed earth was carried out in the UWA structures laboratory using material sampled from the peninsula, characterised by different grading. All batches that were stabilised with cement yielded characteristic compressive strength which can be safely designed for in rammed earth constructions, showing a characteristic compressive strength, calculated according to 8 and 9, higher than 2 MPa. It was found that the mechanical behaviour under uniaxial compressive load of SRE is qualitatively similar to that of concrete. To cope with the lack of a proper rammed earth Australian Standard, the concrete recommendations might be used but to what extent is still under investigation. In the light of an increasing demand for more environmentally friendly materials to be used in residential constructions, it seems as though there is room for more rammed earth construction not only in remote but also in metropolitan areas. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Both authors wish to thank Allan Archer, Stephen Dobson, Bill Smalley and Richard Jones who shared their immense wealth of knowledge and experience in relation to rammed earth constructions. REFERENCES 1. M Boulter, 2008, e Dampier Peninsula Housing Program -- appropriate building materials, final year civil engineering thesis, University of Western Australia. 2. R Bahar, M Benazzoug, S Kenai, 2004, Performance of compacted cement-stabilised soil, Cement & Concrete composites, 26, 811-820. 3. BV Venkatarama Reddy, KS Jagadish, Embodied energy of common and alternatives building materials and technologies, Energy and Buildings 35 (2003) 129-137. 4. JC Morel, A Mesbah, M Oggero, P Walker, 2001, Building houses with local materials: means to drastically reduce the environmental impact of construction, Building and Environment 36, 1119-1126. 5. C Jayasinghe, N Kamaladasa, 2007, Compressive strength characteristic of cement stabilised rammed earth walls, Construction and Building Materials 21, 1971-1976. 6. D Ciancio, & M Boulter, Stabilised rammed earth: a case study in Western Australia, Engineering sustainability, paper accepted for publication, ES-D-10-00003R1. 7. P Taylor, MB Luther, 2004, Evaluating rammed earth walls: a case study, Solar Energy 76, 79-84. 8. GF Middleton, & LM Schneider, 1987 Bulletin 5: Earth-Wall Construction, 4th edn, CSIRO, Sydney. 9. P Walker, 2002, HB 195: e Australian Earth Building Handbook, 1st edn, Standards Australia International Ltd, Sydney. 10. Materials and Workmanship For Earth Buildings, NZS 4298:1998, published by Standards New Zealand. 11. Australian Stabilised Earth Group, 2005, Residential Specification (5.00): Monolithic Stabilised EarthWalling, Australian Stabilised Earth Group, Willunga. 12. Committee CE/9 1995, AS1222.214.171.124: Method 3.6.1: Soil classification tests -- Determination of the particle size distribution of a soil -- Standard method of analysis by sieving, 1st edn, Standards Australia, Strathfield, NSW. 13. Committee CE/9 2001, AS1289.1.1: Method 1.1: Sampling and preparation of soils -- Preparation of disturbed soil samples for testing, 2nd edn, Standards Australia, Strathfield, NSW. 14. Committee CE/9 2003, AS12126.96.36.199: Method 5.2.1: Soil compaction and density tests -- Determination of the dry density/ moisture content relation of a soil using modified compactive effort, 2nd edn, Standards Australia, Strathfield, NSW. 15. Standards Australia Committee 1999, Method 9: Determination of the compressive strength of concrete specimens, 3rd edn, Standards Australia, Strathfield, NSW. 16. Joint Technical Committee BD-006 2002, Structural design actions -- Part 2: Wind actions, 2nd edn, Standards Australia, Sydney. 17. MRA van Vliet & JGM van Mier, 1996, Experimental investigation of concrete fracture under uniaxial compression, Mechanics of Cohesive-Frictional Materials, vol 1, 115-127. 18. M Hall, Y Djerbib, 2004, Moisture ingress in rammed earth: Part 1-the effect of soil particle-size distribution on the rate of capillary suction, Construction and Building 18, 269-280. 19. M Hall, Y Djerbib, 2006, Moisture ingress in rammed earth: Part 2-the effect of soil particle-size distribution on the absorption of static pressure-driven water, Construction and Building 20, 374-383.