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Concrete In Australia : June 2008
TECHNICAL Table 2. The durability plan process. Process Durability assessment, 30% structural design Durability assessment, 85% structural design Durability assessment, 100% structural design Documentation of construction procedures and materials supply Quality systems of construction and material supply Verification of construction procedures and material supply Durability assessment verifi cation of finished product Method Durability issues of 85% structural design reports, all environment test data and specifications. Durability infl uencing changes not expected in the 100% design compared to 85% design. Principal will initiate any required durability review based on the durability plan. Method statements and process control plans. Principal will initiate any required durability review based on the durability plan. Monitor construction procedures and materials supplied using inspection and test plans (ITP) of suffi cient detail to determine durability compliance. Inspection and approval of staged completion will be carried out during the works, including review of completed ITP’s. Verifi cation that all completed works are in accordance with the durability plan by review of ITP non-conformance and rectifi cation records by comparison with the 100% durability plan report. Table 3. Nominal design lives in Australian standards relevant to reinforced concrete. Standard number Year of publication Subject AS 3600 DR 05252 AS 3600 AS 3735 AS 2159 AS 4997 AS 5100 DS 61 ’92 AUSTROADS 2001 General design of concrete structures. 2005 1994 Draft revision to AS 3600-2001, closed for public comment 14/7/2005 but not yet issued as a standard. General design of concrete structures, available as a superceded standard with informative supplement. 2001 Design of concrete structures for retaining liquids. 1995 2005 Design guide for maritime structures. 2004 Design of concrete elements for bridges. 2006 planning process is dynamic with staged reviews, as not all matters will be clear at the beginning of the process. Durability considerations alone will not be the final arbiters of materials selection and construction practice. There will often be several optional design solutions for a given component and detailed knowledge of parameters such as potential acid sulfate soils or groundwater chemistry may be incomplete prior to award of contract for detailed design. The combination of site location and conditions; geotechnical conditions; structural 50 Concrete in Australia Vol 34 No 2 Design and installation of all types of piling, including concrete. Durability issues identifi ed for inclusion in 30% structural design reports. Durability engineer Durability engineer Durability engineer Author Reviewer Principal Principal Principal Principal Durability engineer Principal Durability engineer Principal Durability engineer Durability engineer Principal Nominal dsign life Clause 4.1: 40-60 yrs Clause 4.1: 40-60 yrs Clause 4.1: 40-60 yrs Clause 4.1: 40-60 yrs Clause 6.1: 40-60 yrs Table 6.1: Temporary works 5 yrs Small craft 25 yrs Normal commercial 50 yrs Special/residential 100 yrs Design and construction of storage tanks for potable water in the reticulated supply. Clause 4.1: 100 yrs Table 1.5: 40-80 yrs 1992 Design code for reinforced concrete elements of bridges. Clause 5.4.1: 100 yrs requirements; availability of materials, services, specialist labour or equipment; cost; scheduling; and durability requirements will collectively dictate the final choice. Design life and standards An issue currently facing the construction industry is that the relevant national standards have not kept pace with market expectations. In the case of reinforced concrete, it is now common to specify design life (in terms of time to first major