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Concrete In Australia : June 2008
100 125 25 50 75 0 0 20406080 Age (weeks) Figure 5. Change in compressive strength of heat-cured geopolymer concrete with age (Wallah and Rangan, 2006). Conclusion The paper presents a background to flyash-based geopolymer concrete. The constituents and the manufacture of geopolymer concrete are described. Test data are used to identify the effects of salient factors that infl uence the properties of the geopolymer concrete in the fresh and hardened states. These results are used to propose a simple method for the design of geopolymer concrete mixtures. The design method is illustrated by an example. References 1. Davidovits J (1988), Soft mineralogy and geopolymers, Proceedings of the of Geopolymer 88 International Conference, the Université de Technologie, Compiègne, France. 2. Davidovits J (1994), High-alkali cements for 21st century concretes, Concrete Technology, Past, Present and Future”, Proceedings of V.Mohan Malhotra Symposium, Editor: P. Kumar Metha, ACI SP- 144, 383-397. 3. Davidovits, J (2008), Geopolymer chemistry and applications, Institut Geopolymere, France, 595 pp. 4. Duxson P, Provis J L, Lukey G C and van Deventer J S J (2007), The role of inorganic polymer technology in the development of green concrete, Cement and Concrete Research, 37(12), 1590-1597. 5. Fernández-Jiménez A M, Palomo A, and López- Hombrados C (2006a), Engineering properties of alkali- activated fl yash concrete, ACI Materials Journal, 103(2), 106-112. 6. Fernández-Jiménez A M, de la Torre A G, Palomo A, López-Olmo G, Alonso M M, and Aranda M A G (2006b), Quantitative determination of phases in the alkali activation of fl yash, Part I, Potential ash reactivity, Fuel, 85(5-6), 625-634. 7. Gartner E (2004), Industrially interesting approaches to low-CO2 1489-1498. cements, Cement and Concrete Research, 34(9), 100 120 140 160 8. Gourley, J. T. (2003), Geopolymers; opportunities for environmentally friendly construction materials, Paper presented at the Materials 2003 Conference: Adaptive Materials for a Modern Society, Sydney. 9. Gourley J T and Johnson G B (2005), Developments in geopolymer precast concrete, Paper presented at the International Workshop on Geopolymers and Geopolymer Concrete, Perth, Australia. 10. Hardjito D and Rangan B V (2005), Development and properties of low-calcium flyash-based geopolymer concrete, Research report GC1, Faculty of Engineering, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, available at espace@curtin or www.geopolymer.org. 11. Malhotra V M (1999), Making concrete ‘greener’ with fl yash, ACI Concrete International, 21, 61-66. 12. Malhotra, V.M. (2006), Reducing CO2 emissions, ACI Concrete International, 28, 42-45. 13. McCaffrey R (2002), Climate change and the cement industry, Global Cement and Lime Magazine (Environmental Special Issue) 15-19. 14. Rangan BV (2008a), Low-calcium flyash-based geopolymer concrete, Chapter 26 in Concrete Construction Engineering Handbook, Editor-in Chief: E.G. Nawy, Second Edition, CRC Press, New York. 15. Rangan B V (2008b), Flyash-based geopolymer concrete, Research Report GC4, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, available at espace@curtin or Resources Section of Concrete Institute of Australia website. 16. Rangan BV (2009), Engineering properties of geopolymer concrete, Chapter 13 in Geopolymers: structures, processing, properties and applications, Editors: J.Provis and J van Deventer, Woodhead Publishing Limited, London. 17. Siddiqui K S (2007), Strength and durability of low- calcium fl yash-based geopolymer concrete, Final year honours dissertation, The University of Western Australia, Perth. 18. Sofi M, van Deventer J S J, Mendis P A and Lukey G C (2007a), Engineering properties of inorganic polymer concretes (IPCs), Cement and Concrete Research, 37(2), 251-257. 19. Sofi M, van Deventer J S J, Mendis P A and Lukey G C (2007b), Bond performance of reinforcing bars in inorganic polymer concrete (IPC), Journal of materials science, 42(9), 3007-3016. 20. Sumajouw M D J and Rangan B V (2006), Low-calcium fl yash-based geopolymer concrete: reinforced beams and columns, Research report GC3, Faculty of Engineering, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, available at espace@curtin or www.geopolymer.org. 21. Wallah S E and Rangan B V (2006), Low-calcium fl yash-based geopolymer concrete: long-term properties, Research report GC2, Faculty of Engineering, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, available at espace@ curtin or www.geopolymer.org. 22. Van Jaarsveld, J G S, van Deventer J S, Lorenzen L (1997), The potential use of geopolymeric materials to immobilise toxic metals: Part I: theory and applications, Minerals Engineering 10(7), 659-669. Concrete in Australia Vol 34 No 2 43 Ratio of compressive strength (%)